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Fire Spread on Walls and Ceilings to Flashover. (Abstract/Presentation)

pdf icon Fire Spread on Walls and Ceilings to Flashover. (Abstract/Presentation) (221 K)
Quintiere, J. G.

NIST SP 998; May 2003.


fire growth; fire spread; walls; ceilings; flashover


Flame spread speed on surfaces has been successfully modeled using a simple engineering formula that relies on knowledge of flame heating length and the corresponding heat flux. The flame spreads if the heat flux is sufficient to bring the material to its ignition temperature. This heat transfer process depends on the thermal properties of the material. To apply this formula, the material properties must be known. For practical applications, the material properties must easily be measurable, and consistent with a model. The flame heat flux and its extent of heating depend on orientation, direction of spread, and ambient conditions. These flame features are presently beyond the capability of fundamental prediction. The difficulties that prevent accurate prediction are the ability to resolve the reaction region, radiation heat transfer, and turbulence effects. Consequently, I have relied on correlations and measurements, for the most part, in estimating these flame parameters.