Literature Review on CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation.
Literature Review on CO2-Based Demand-Controlled
Emmerich, S. J.; Persily, A. K.
ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 103, No. 2, 1997.
carbon dioxide; ventilation; case histories; field
studies; simulation; sensors; occupants
Many ventilation requirements and recommendations are in
the form of outdoor airflow rates per person.
Ventilation systems are therefore designed to provide a
minimum level of outdoor air based on the designed
occupancy level multiplied by the per-person ventilation
requirement. Because the indoor generation rate of
carbon dioxide is dependent on the number of occupants,
it has been proposed to use indoor carbon dioxide
concentrations as a means of controlling outdoor air
intake based on the actual number of occupants in the
space as opposed to the design occupancy. Such
demand-controlled ventilation offers the possibility of
reducing the energy penalty of overventilation during
periods of low occupancy while still ensuring adequate
levels of outdoor air ventilation. This paper reviews
previous work on carbon-dioxide-based demand-controlled
ventilation, including field demonstration projects,
computer simulation studies, studies of sensor
performance and location, and discussions of the
application of the approach. The work is summarized and
a number of research needs are identified.