January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) Earthquake: Performance of Structures, Lifelines, and Fire Protection Systems.
January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) Earthquake:
Performance of Structures, Lifelines, and Fire
Chung, R. M.; Ballantyne, D. B.; Comeau, E.; Holzer, T.
L.; Madrzykowski, D.; Schiff, A. J.; Stone, W. C.;
Wilcoski, J.; Borcherdt, R. D.; Cooper, J. D.; Lew, H.
S.; Moehle, J.; Sheng, L. H.; Taylor, A. W.; Bucker, I.;
Hayes, J.; Leyendecker, E. V.; O'Rourke, T.; Singh, M.
P.; Whitney, M.
NIST SP 901; ISCCS TR18; 573 p. July 1996.
Available from: Government Printing Office, Washington,
Order number: SN003-003-03412-6
earthquakes; airports; bridges (structures); building
fires; building technology; engineering seismology;
electric power; gas; geology; geotechnology; lateral
spread; lifelines; liquefaction; reinforced concretes;
sewage; steels; telecommunications; wastewater; water;
wood frame construction; transportation; natural
The January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake of
magnitude 7.2 in JMA scale (Mw = 6.9), which struck
Kobe, Japan and its surrounding area was the most severe
earthquake to affect that region this century. The
earthquake resulted in more than 6,000 deaths and over
30,000 injuries. Fires following the earthquake
incinerated the equivalent of 70 U.S. city blocks. They
together destroyed over 150,000 buildings and left about
300,000 people homeless. The economic loss as a result
of this earthquake is estimated to reach $200 billion.
An investigation was conducted under the auspices of the
Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects of the U.S.-Japan
Program in Natural Resources to observe, document, and
summarize important lessons from this earthquake that
can be used to mitigate the potentially tragic impact of
future earthquakes on modern urbanized communities. An
18-member team was in Japan from February 12 to February
18, 1995 to study seismology, geology, and geotechnical
effects; as well as the performance of buildings,
lifelines, and fire safety systems. This document
summarizes the information collected during as well as
following this investigation. Key findings of the
investigation include needs for research and for
improvements in practices to achieve earthquake loss
reduction in the United States.