Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Hydraulic Cement Microstructure.
Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Hydraulic Cement
Stutzman, P. E.
Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 26, No. 8,
957-966, November 2004.
cements; clinker; image processing; image analysis;
microstructure; scanning electron microscopy; x-ray
Use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray
microanalysis allows study of clinker and cements;
permitting measuring bulk phase abundance and surface
areas of the phases, as well as bulk chemistry of
constituent phases can be carried out. Direct imaging of
hydraulic cements by SEM yields a more complete picture
of both bulk and surface phase compositions. Mass
percentages obtained by SEM imaging are in good
agreement with percentages based upon QXRD and may
differ significantly from those estimated by the Bogue
calculations. The finer-grained phases (gypsum,
tricalcium aluminate, and ferrite) show much higher
surface areas per unit mass than the coarser-grained
phases such as alite and belite. Such data are being
applied to develop better relationships between the
cement material properties and performance properties
and to provide starting images for a cement hydration
simulation model being developed at NIST.